Fact About Javan Rhino/Javanese Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus)

Rhinoceros: derived from the Greek rhino, meaning "nose" and ceros, meaning "horn", referring to sondaicus Sunda islands in Indonesia. (Latin-ICUs indicate locations); "Sunda" means "Java".

Javan Rhino/Javanese Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus)
Rhino appears at the tertiary era (± 65 million years ago) and consists of five periods:
  1. Paleocene period (± 60 - 50 million years ago)
  2. Eocene period (± 50-45 million years ago
  3. Oligocene period (± 35-25 million years ago)
  4. Miocene period (± 25-10 million years ago
  5. Pleocene period (± 10 million years ago)
Javan Rhino/Javanese Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus)

Like the dinosaurs that became extinct 70 million years ago, rhinos which at sixty million years ago there were 30 species that live on the earth also suffered extinction. At this time only five types of rhinos live in a world of which three types of rhinos live in Asia, namely:
  • Rhino Sumatra (Sumatran rhino) two-horned or Dicerorhinus sumatrensis Fischer, 1814
  • Javan rhino (Javan rhino) one-horned or Rhinocerus sondaicus Desmarest, 1822
  • Indian rhinoceros (Indian rhino) Rhinocerus unicornis one-horned or Linnaeus, 1758
  • Black African-horned rhinoceros horn (Black Rhino) or Diceros bicormis
  • Two-horned African White Rhinoceros (White Rhino) or Cerathoterium simum

DESCRIPTION The Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus)
  1. Height from foot to shoulder ranges between 168-175 cm.
  2. Body length from tip of snout to tail length of 392 cm and 70 cm head.
  3. Body weight can reach 1280 kg.
  4. His body was hairless except for the ears and tail section.
  5. His body was wrapped in skin thickness between 25-30 mm.
  6. outer skin has a mosaic pattern.
  7. Skin folds under the neck to the top of the adjacent shoulder.
  8. On his back there is also a saddle-shaped fold of skin (saddle) and a fold near the tail and upper hind legs.
  9. One-horned Javan rhino horn size can reach 27 cm.
  10. Female rhino has no horns,
  11. Horns color dark gray or black, the darker the color the older, darker at the base than at its end.
In taxonomic classification of the Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus) as follows:
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Sub-phylum: Vertebrata
Super class: Gnatostomata
Classes: mammalian
Super order: Mesaxonia
Order: Perissodactyla
Super family: Rhinocerotides
Family: Rhinocerotidae
Genus: Rhinoceros (Linnaeus, 1758)
Species: Rhinoceros sondaicus (Desmarest, 1822)
Javan Rhino/Javanese Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus)

Rhino including nocturnal animals means all activities carried out in the afternoon, evening, and morning. During the day they generally beriistirahat. Former sleep is often found to be close to a pool or under a tree or a clump of bamboo, often found in open forest on the crest of a hill Rhinos lay sleeping and resting with one or both legs stretched forward, as opposed to Diceros that before they lay up hay around him with his front leg. When resting rhino to put some of his side to the ground. Rhino is not a real sleeper type. Rhinos are often found resting on solid ground but wallow. Resting place is marked by trails or trail on the ground rhinoceros skin, but sometimes no trace when the soil is quite hard. Rhino does not always lie down to rest, but stood up, looked drowsy (sleeping chicken) with his head slumped down. Rhinoceros sondaicus is an animal rainforest.

Male rhino wander seem happier than the female rhinoceros. Regularly Rhino always follow the same trajectories, especially near the wallow and a place to salt licks (salting), always follow certain paths are often used by previous generations of rhinos. Walking slowly and alert, with a body smeared with soil, and it lasts for 24 hours. When you find other paths in the woods and a favorite, rhinos will continue traveling in the area for days

Rhino can be run by stepping, running or jumping, the two last way is only seen in animals that run away. Ability rhino through steep lands was amazing. When disturbed, rhinos can make the leap, with front legs raised and bent through the bush.

RHINO JAVA (Rhinoceros sondaicus) FOODS
No fewer than 190 species of plants are a source of food for rhinos. Of these, four species are the main food source, namely forest kedondong (Spondias pinnata), Tepus (Ammomum sp), selungkar (Leea sambucina) and seal (Dillenia excelsa). Food plant species found in scrub areas in the eastern part of Ujung Kulon like Nyiur, Nyawaan, Citelang, Cikarang, Pamegaran, Cigenter and Cihandeuleum. Plants feed on dalah Ujung Kulon National Park area has been identified as many as 453 species of plants, including 362 species of trees (80%) and as many as 148 species from 62 families with 120 genera is the rhino feed. Feed the Javan rhino in Ujung Kulon National Park. Edible parts of plants is based on the findings in the field shoots, leaves, umbut, stems, bark and fruit by 87% preference level Sapling level.

Keyword: Javan Rhino, Javanese Rhinoceros, Rhinoceros sondaicus, one-horned rhinoceros
original post in Indonesian blogmhariyanto